The Status of Indonesian Coral Reefs 2019
Penulis: Ofri JohanIndonesia is an archipelagic country with 16.056 verified islands situated in the tropical zone. This makes the water warm throughout the year and this is suitable for plenty of marine creatures to strive. Besides, Indonesia is a part of the coral triangle region, the world’s highest marine biodiversity. In this case, there are about 569 species and 83 genera of stony corals recorded, representing approximately 69% and 76% for species and genera respectively of stony corals around the world. Interestingly, there are 4 endemic species recorded, namely Acropora suharsonoi (Lombok), Euphyllia baliensis (Bali), Indophyllia macassarensis (Makassar), and Isopora togianensis (Togean) (Figure 1). To conserve the habitats and biodiversity, by the middle of 2019 the government has already had a 22.68 million hectare of marine conservation area, approximately 6% of Indonesia marine areas. As the world’s fourth most populated country by around 270 million, Indonesia's coastal areas are prone to degradation due to human activities. The impact can be seen in front of some big cities located close to coastal areas, such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Makassar, and Batam. Natural disasters, such as earthquakes and tsunami, also sometimes occur and affect negatively the coral reefs. Another main problem is the elevated sea temperature which causes bleaching events in many locations, especially in the southern and western parts of Indonesia. Although these factors are inevitable, it appears that the reefs are able to withstand or even to recover, depending on the intensity and frequency of the stressors, biodiversity, connectivity, and the environmental conditions. Coral reef rehabilitation and management program (COREMAP) is a long term national program that aims to manage Indonesia’s coral reefs and its related coastal ecosystems to remain sustainable and benefit the coastal communities. One main component of the program is monitoring the condition of coastal ecosystems, especially coral reef, seagrass, and mangrove (the last two ecosystems have been being monitored since 2015). The other component is to improve people's awareness through education, dissemination, and training in which people are expected to participate actively in ecosystem conservation. In short, the program focuses not only on the ecosystem management, but also the people as the key success factor of the program.
Pusat Penelitian Oseanografi, 2020, 96pp
ISSN / ISBN / IBSN : 978-602-6504-29-6
No. Arsip : LIPI-20200702